Thursday, June 20, 2024

The Heraldic Glass in the Chapter House of York Minster: Part 5 of 7 (the Southeast Window)


Next up on our look at the seven windows in the Chapter House of York Minster, we come to the southeast window:


In the rose window at the center top, we have the arms of England, Gules three lions passant guardant in pale or. Immediately below England, we have again the arms of Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, Gules three lions passant guardant in pale or a label of five tags azure each tag charged with three fleurs-de-lis or.

Below that, in the rose window on the left, we have once again the arms of England, immediately beneath which we see the arms of Peter de Montfort, Gules a lion rampant queue-forchy argent.

In the rose windwo on the right, we see another shield of the arms of England. Immediately beneath that shield, we have the arms of John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, England within a bordure azure semy-de-lis or.

Browne, in his A Description of the Representations and Arms on the Glass in the Windows of York Minster, says this shield is that of Philippa of Hainault, King Edward III's Queen: England within a bordure azure semy-de-lys or. But Philippa of Hainault's arms as consort are generally given as Quarterly: 1 and 4, England (Quarterly England and France ancient); 2 and 3, Hainault (Quarterly: 1 and 4, Or a lion rampant sable; 2 and 3, Or a lion rampant gules. So I pretty much have to go along with the identification of these arms by Weir in his A Guide to the Heraldry in York Minster as those of John of Eltham.*

In the two smaller rose windows below, on the left we have the arms of Robert de Ros (d. 1285), Gules three water bougets argent, and on the right the arms of William de Ros (d. 1316), also Gules three water bougets argent.




* These "battling identifications" from two different experts helps to demonstrate the need for the heraldic researcher to double-check every identification found and not simply accept the statement of an expert. Because, as I have found on several different occasions, the experts, and even such a luminary as Sir Anthony Wagner, quondam Garter King of Arms, as I found by doing my own research on one occasion, may be incorrect in something they say about an heraldic matter.

Monday, June 17, 2024

The Heraldic Glass in the Chapter House of York Minster: Part 4 of 7 (the East Window)


Continuing our clockwise circumlocution of the Chapter House in York Minster, we come to the East Window.


In the rose window at the top, we see the arms of England, Gules three lions passant guardant in pale or, and immediately below, the arms of Roger Bigod, Earl Marshal of England, Per pale or and vert a lion rampant gules.

Below those arms, in the rose window on the left we have the arms England repeated, just above those of Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, Gules a fess between six crosses crosslet or.

And in the rose window on the right, we see the arms of Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, England (Gules three lions passant guardant in pale or) with a label of three tags azure each tag charged with three fleurs-de-lis or. And immediately below Edmund's arms, we find the arms identified by both Weir in A Guide to the Heraldry of York Minster and Browne in A Description of the Representations and Arms on the Glass in the Windows of York Minster as those of Ralph de Bulmer. However, the Bulmer arms are Gules billety a lion rampant or, but the arms shown in the window are simply Gules a lion rampant or, and thus lacking the strewn billets on the field. (You can click on the image above to go to the full-size photograph to check for yourself.)

So, we have to ask: did the stained glass painter make an error by accidentally leaving out the golden billets on the field, or are these actually meant to be the arms of FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel, whose arms, Gules a lion rampant or, appear elsewhere in the Minster?

Far be it from me to say that I know more than the two knowledgeable sources cited above, but really, I'm not seeing the billets of Bulmer in the window. (You can click on the image above to go to the full-size photograph to check for yourself.) And so if it's not a mistake of the stained glass window painter, then I have to think that these are not the arms of Bulmer, but rather those of the Earl of Arundel.

Finally, here in the East Window of the Chapter House, the two small rose windows do not contain coats of arms, unlike the other windows here. The small rose window on the left contains a face or bust, and I cannot make out what is supposed to be in the small rose window on the right. But in neither case is it a coat of arms.

Thursday, June 13, 2024

The Heraldic Glass in the Chapter House of York Minster: Part 3 of 7 (the Northeast Window)


Continuing along to the next (the northeast) window in the Chapter House, we find these coats of arms:


Following the same general pattern for the arrangement of coats of arms that is followed in all of the windows, here in the rose window at the top, we see the arms of England, Gules three lions passant guardant in pale or, here, too, placed on aground of blue, the shield flanked by two golden fleurs-de-lis. Immediately below England, we have the arms of Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, Gules three lions passant guardant in pale or a label of five tags azure each tag charged with three fleurs-de-lis.

Below those two coats of arms, in the large rose window on the left, we have repeated the arms of England, also on a ground of France. Immediately below that coat of arms, we find another copy of the arms of Warenne, Checky or and azure.

In the large rose window on the right, we see yet another copy of the arms of England on a ground of France. Immediately below that coat, we see the arms of William de Ros, Gules three water bougets argent. The ground for his arms are blue, with a gold garb of wheat on each side.

Further below, in the small rose window on the left, we see the arms of Clare, Or three chevrons gules, which we have seen elsewhere in the Minster.

And in the small rose window on the right, we find the arms of Ralph Neville, Lord of Raby, Gules a saltire argent.

Monday, June 10, 2024

It's International Heraldry Day!


Greetings on International Heraldry Day! International Heraldry Day is the one day each year the entire heraldic community celebrates worldwide the wonderful science, art, and tradition that is heraldry, no matter the origin, group, or tradition from whence your heraldry originates!


(The image above by by Danilo Carlos Martins, 2023)

The goal of the original organizers of International Heraldry Day is that eventually all heraldry enthusiasts will acknowledge the event in the years to come. The celebration was started in 2013 by the International Association of Amateur Heralds (IAAH).


Why was June 10 selected? Because on that day in the year 1128, Geoffrey Plantagenet was knighted by his future father-in-law, Henry I Beauclerc, in Rouen. Suspended on the neck of the young knight was shield of blue decorated six golden lions. That shield was later borne by Geoffrey's grandson, William Longspee, and is generally recognized as the fully formed coat of arms.


So come and celebrate with heralds from around the globe, and with me, the wonderful, colorful world of heraldry on this special day!

"It’s like lions and unicorns and sinisters and rampants and shit and we’re like all over the slogans in Elvish and that yeah!"


Thursday, June 6, 2024

The Heraldic Glass in the Chapter House of York Minster: Part 2 of 7 (the North Window)


Continuing our circular perambulation around the Chapter House in York Minster, we come to the heraldry in the North window.

Again, you can click on the image below to go to a larger, more detailed photograph.


In the rose window at the top, we have the arms of England (on a ground of azure, with two fleurs-de-lis or), and immediately below it, the arms of Gilbert de Clare, senior, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford (d. 1295), or Gilbert de Clare, junior, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford (d. 1314), Or three chevrons gules.

In the large rose window on the left, we have the arms of Robert de Clifford or Thomas Clifford, Checky or and azure a fess gules. Immediately below that are the arms (again) of Gilbert de Clare, senior, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford (d. 1295), or Gilbert de Clare, junior, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford (d. 1314), Or three chevrons gules.

In the large rose window on the right, we have the arms of England (without the background of France), Gules three lions passant guardant in pale or. And immediately below England, we see the arms of Warenne, Checky or and azure. Browne, in his book A Description of the Representations and Arms on the Glass in the Windows of York Minster says these should be the arms of John de Dreux, Checky or and azure a canton ermine, but there is clearly no canton of any tincture there.

In the small rose window on the left we have once again the arms of Warrenne, Checky or and azure.

In the small rose window on the right, Weir's A Guide to the Heraldry in York Minster says this shield is Warrenne, but I am not at all sure that it is even a coat of arms at all! Browne does not note it, stating that in this window there are “only seven shields.”

It's always interesting, even if not at all fun, to try to mediate between two different knowledgeable authors to come to a conclusion about something that I am looking at with my own eyes. And in this instance, I'm pretty sure I'm going to go with Browne, and say that this last is not a coat of arms, and that there are only seven coats in this window.

What do you think?

Monday, June 3, 2024

The Heraldic Glass in the Chapter House of York Minster: Part 1 of 7 (the Northwest Window)


Beginning with this post, we are going to visit each of these seven windows in the Chapter House in the order I photographed them, turning to the one immediately to the left of the entrance (that is, on the northwest wall) first and then moving about the circular Chapter House in a clockwise direction, photographing the windows on the north, northeast, east, southeast, south, and southwest, the entrance being in the western wall.

All of the windows in the Chapter House follow the same pattern: three small rose windows at the top, each containing two coats of arms, one placed immediately above the other, and below them a trefoil-shaped window between to smaller rosette windows, with each of the latter containing a single coat of arms.

And, as I found out while researching the Chapter House windows, you can't always trust your sources at face value. While Weir's A Guide to the Heraldry in York Minster (published in 1986) on p. 75 gives identifications of the arms in these windows, they are not always correct in comparison with the identifications in the (harder to read, admittedly) book by John Browne, A Description of the Representations and Arms on the Glass in the Windows of York Minster, published in 1859. Where the two differ, I tend to go with Browne, who often speaks of some of the symbols flanking some of the shields, lending support to his identifications.

As Browne tells us in his book, “Interspersed with the arms of England, placed in the heads of the windows of the Chapter House, are the arms of the principal commanders of the English army either against the invading Scots, or at the Battle of Crecy with the King [Edward III] in 1346.”

And so, on to the heraldic glass in the first window!  (Feel free to click on the image below to see the full-size photograph in better detail.)


The two shields at the top of the window are the arms of the See of York, Gules two keys in saltire wards to chief argent in chief a royal crown or, immediately beneath which are the arms of John de Greystoke (d.s.p. 1306) or William de Greystoke (father of John), Gules three lozenges argent.

In the larger rose window on the left, we have what should be the arms of Gilbert de Clare, Or three chevrons gules, but which is glazed as Chevronny gules and azure. Immediately below is the arms of Percy (ancient), which should be Azure a fess fusilly or, but which is glazed as Azure a fess fusilly gules. It was Henry, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick, who changed his arms from Percy ancient to Percy modern, Or a lion rampant azure.) In both of these windows, the glaziers seem to have substituted blue for gold (that is, azure for or).

In the large rose window on the right, we have the arms of Balliol, Gules an orle argent (here glazed as Azure an orle argent). Immdiately beneath The Balliol shield we have what Weir tentatively identifies as Latimer (who bear Gules a cross patonce argent) , but which  Browne says should be the arms of William Vesci, who also bears Gules a cross patonce argent. In either case they are glazed here as Azure a cross [not really patonce, but not pomelly, either] argent, which is incorrect for either Latimer or Vesci.

In the smaller rose window on the lower left, we see the arms which Weir identifies as FitzAlen of Bedale,, but which Browne identifies as FitzAlan of Clun. In either case, these arms, glazed as Gules three bars or should properly be Barry of eight or and gules.

And in the smaller rose window on the lower right, we have the arms of John de Greystoke (d.s.p. 1306) or his father, William de Greystoke, Gules three lozenges argent.

And that's the firrst of the seven windows in the Chapter House in York Minster. Next time, we'll look at the heraldry in the north window!

Thursday, May 30, 2024

Arms and Other Symbols in the Choir of York Minster, Part 3 of 3


Today is the last of our series of three posts on the heraldry and heraldry-like designs that appear in the choir of York Minster.

Scholarum de Cantu (the York Choir School), with the arms of St. George: Argent a cross gules.


Canonicus Laicus (lay canon), South Cave: Gules in pale three Saxon crowns or.


Stillington: Azure a cross recercely issuing from its base a pair of anchor flukes all or. Admittedly, the cross here appears to be copper-colored, but copper as an heraldic tincture only appears (so far) in the heraldry of Canada, not of England, so I went with the closest heraldic metal, gold.


2192: Ulleskelf: Sable a Maltese cross (?) azure and argent. Here again, as we had twice in my previous post, a cross that is not quite quarterly and not quite gyronny. Even after more research, I still don't know how to blazon its division. Still, it's pretty, if not quite heraldic.


Unnamed: Azure a crozier sable surmounted by a pallium or charged with four crosses paty fitchy sable. If the pallium were white instead of gold, this would be the See of York ancient? (or possibly the Archbishopric of Canterbury). As it is, I cannot make a firm identification for this design.


And finally, saving what may be the least traditionally heraldic for last, the Provincial Canon, or Canonicus Provincialis: Azure a fish leaping to sinister within the horns of a crescent of net bendwise sinister all argent. This design matches in style with some of the modern heraldic designs from Scandinavia and Greenland, but it's not traditional English heraldry by any stretch of the imagination. (Still, I was able to come up with a blazon for it, which is more than I can say for three of the crosses from today and last time!)


Until next time, enjoy!

Monday, May 27, 2024

Arms and Other Symbols in the Choir of York Minster, Part 2 of 3


Today is the second of three posts on the heraldry and other quasi-heraldic items found in the choir stalls in York Minster.

You will note that some of these are somewhat less heraldic than others.

Botevant, with a lesser-known attributed arms of St. Peter: Sable a rooster turned to sinister or beaked wattled and marked gules.


Ampleforth, with the arms of St. Hilda: Azure three serpents coiled or. (We have seen these in our previous post, representing the Bishop of Whitby by way of the arms of Whitby Abbey.) The coiled snakes are really ammonite fossils. According to legend, Abbess Hilda of Whitby Abbey rounded up the serpents that swarmed around the abbey. She hurled them from the cliffs, where they lost their heads and turned into stones.


Apesthorp: Azure an escarbuncle argent.


Bilton: Azure a cross (?) or and gules. I am at somewhat of a loss as to how to blazon this cross. It is almost quarterly and almost gyronny, without being either. (We run into exactly this same issue with the emblem for Knaresborough, below.) It's a pretty design, but I don't know how to blazon it.


Canonicus Laicus, Wilton: Argent on a lozenge azure a cross moline argent charged in the center with a delf bendwise argent marked sable. I have to admit, I don't know what the charge in the center of the cross is supposed to be. I was more than half-tempted to blazon it a "Rubik's cube", but have manfully resisted right until typing this comment.


Knaresborough: Sable a Maltese cross (?) argent and azure. As with Bilton, above, I don't know how to blazon the division of the cross here. It's pretty, but blazoning it is a problem.


Next time, the final part of the heraldry and quasi-heraldry in the choir at York Minster.

Thursday, May 23, 2024

Arms and Other Symbols in the Choir of York Minster, Part 1 of 3


The Choir of York Minster is not without its own heraldic (and quasi-heraldic) decorations.

And we're going to cover many of those in this series of three blog posts. (Broken up so as to avoid making one very, very long post!)

First, here's an general view of some of the choir stalls, so you can see generally how these needlework emblems were placed in the stalls and (most of them) identified with name plaques above them.


First, representing the Bishop of Selby, the arms of Selby Abbey: Sable three swans proper.


The, representing the Bishop of Hull, the emblem carved on roof of Holy Trinity Church, Hull: Gules three annulets interlaced one and two argent.


The Bishop of Whitby, with the arms of Whitby Abbey (and the attributed arms of St. Hilda, d. 680): Azure three serpents coiled or.


The Bishop of Beverly, represented by the arms of Beverly Minster: Argent a crozier sable enfiling a crown argent all within a bordure sable charged with twelve bezants. Other versions of these arms that I have seen make the crown gold and the roundels on the bordure white.


Bugthorp, with the arms of St. Andrew: Azure a saltire argent.


And finally, Langtoft, with the arms of Stt Peter: Gules two keys in saltire wards to chief argent.


Next time, more heraldry from more choir stalls!

Monday, May 20, 2024

"I Am the Very Model of a Modern Major-General"


Well, sure, the inscription on our next memorial says "Lt.-General", which outranks a Major-General, but in addition to not scanning as well if you are singing the line from Gilbert and Sullivan (as I did repeatedly while researching this memorial), other sources give the rank of the man being memorialized as "Major-General".*


The website https://military-history.fandom.com/wiki/Charles_Daniell informs us that Major-General Charles Frederick Torrens Daniell CB (1827-1889) was a British Army General holding high office in the 1880s.

Born in Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire, the youngest son of Thomas Daniell of Aldridge Lodge, Staffordshire and Little Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire and of Mary née Smith of the Smith banking family, Daniell was commissioned into the 38th Regiment of Foot.

He served as a Major in the Crimea with the 38th Regiment of Foot.

In 1884 he was invited to command an Infantry Brigade at Malta and then in 1886 he was appointed General Officer Commanding Northern District. He remained in this post until 1889.

He died on 26 July 1889 in Beaufort Gardens, South Kensington. There is a beautiful memorial to him in York Minster created from sculpted stonework with inscriptions around oaken doors in the area leading to the vestry. [This is the memorial we are looking at in today's post.]

In 1849 he married Charlotte Vernon, and then in 1856 he married Mary Smith, his first cousin: they had one daughter.


The memorial was erected by their daughter Constance and her husband Charles Graves-Sawle, whose initials appear in the inscription on the plaque, which also notes that York Minster is the church where they were married (this last explains why this memorial is erected here).

There are two coats of arms on the memorial. The one on the left is that of Daniell, Argent a pale fusilly sable, for General Charles Frederick Torrens Daniell. 


The one on the right is Sawle quartering Graves, with Daniell in pretense; these are the arms of the general’s daughter, Constance née Daniell, and her husband, Captain Charles Graves-Sawle. They are blazoned: Quarterly: 1 and 3, Azure three falcon's heads erased within a bordure or (Sawle); 2 and 3, Gules an eagle displayed in chief a mural crown [Burke's General Armory says it should be a naval crown] between two bombs or fired proper (Graves); overall an inescutcheon Argent a pale fusilly sable (Daniell).**






* "The seeming incongruity that a lieutenant general outranks a major general (whereas a major outranks a lieutenant) is due to the derivation of major general from sergeant major general, which was a rank subordinate to lieutenant general (as a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major)." (per Wikipedia)

** As General Daniell's only child was a daughter, in English practice she became an heraldic heiress, allowing her husband to place her paternal arms on an inescutcheon on his shield, denoting that any children they have would be able to quarter their father's arms with their mother's. It may be that in this case, the Daniell arms would be placed in the third quarter, replacing one of the Graves' quarters. Unless the Graves-Sawle arms were deemed to be in impartible quartering, in which case the quarterly Graves-Sawle arms would be placed in their entirety in quarters one and four as a "grand quarrter," and the Daniell arms would be placed in quarters two and three. Ain't heraldry fun?